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Ecosystem Services

Case Studies

On this page we provide studies that deal with ecosystem services and how they can be used as indicators in the context of soil management.


In the first study of Paul et al. (2021) a standardization of soil-related ecosystem services is explained. For doing so, it was assessed which of the classes of the International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) are soil-related or affected by agricultural soil management.The analysis revealed several challenges of the CICES classification system when applied to soils. For instance, the distinction between biotic and abiotic components is problematic, as soils are by definition systems of interrelated biotic and abiotic components. However, CICES can help to standardize ecosystem service assessments and therefore improve their relevance to policy.


The second study of Paul et al. (2022)  gives an insight about how the indicator factsheets for the assessment perspective of the ecosystem services were developed, and describes the dataset in more detail. The dataset is based on a literature review that identified 180 research articles about indicators of ecosystem services in agriculture, of which 121 paper met the selection criteria. For each indicator, the recommended spatial scale was recorded, and the category of the input data (e.g. direct measurement, survey, expert assessment) is provided.

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