Human behaviour is complex and influenced by different factors (Gifford and Nilsson 2014). On the one hand, there are personal factors like knowledge and education, personality, values, political views, age and gender. On the other hand, the social context affects consumer in their decisions, too. These social factors are e.g. religion, living in rural or urban regions, social class and cultural variations. Needs are translated into specific demand for products reflecting the individual background of the person (Peattie 2010).
Meanwhile, environmental awareness is increasing, but often does not translate into appropriate behaviour: the so-called awareness–action or attitude–behaviour gap (Gifford and Nilsson 2014). Environmentally friendly products are more expensive and the product price is an important criterion in purchasing decisions (Thøgersen 2005).
When considering the role of consumers as citizens, it is useful to understand their preferences associated with the various public goods provided or affected by agricultural soil management (Bartkowski et al. 2018). However, little reliable evidence on public preferences for soil functions and/or soil-based ecosystem services is currently available (Bartkowski et al. 2020).